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What does a Hashimoto's Attack Feel Like?

Updated: Mar 25

A Doctor Checking Her Patient For Hashimoto's Disease.

Hashimoto's disease affects many people worldwide. Although we know a lot about its effects on the body, managing a Hashimoto’s attack can be confusing. In this article, we'll talk about strategies on how to manage Hashimoto's attacks.

What is Hashimoto’s Disease?

Hashimoto's disease, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, happens when the body's defense system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland. This attack causes swelling and can lead to hypothyroidism, where the thyroid doesn't work well. The thyroid is a small gland in the neck that helps control metabolism by making hormones.

How Common is Hashimoto’s Disease?

Hashimoto's disease is common, especially in women. About 5% of people have it, and women are more affected than men. It usually shows up between the ages of 30 and 50 years old but it can happen at any age. Knowing how common it is helps raise awareness and find it early.

Causes of Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto's disease is a complicated problem with the thyroid. The doctors and scientists are not sure where it comes from. But, they believe that it might be due to the combination of genetic and environmental factors.

1. Genetic Predisposition

Genes are a big part of why people get Hashimoto's disease. If someone in your family has thyroid problems or autoimmune issues, you might be at a higher risk of getting it too. Certain genes linked to how your immune system works and your thyroid might make you more likely to get Hashimoto's.

2. Environmental Triggers

Genes are part of it, but things in your surroundings can also trigger Hashimoto's disease. Some things you are exposed to might cause your immune system to attack your thyroid. Common triggers include:

  • Iodine Intake: Having too much iodine can cause Hashimoto's disease. Iodine is good for your thyroid, but too much can make your immune system act up and damage your thyroid.

  • Viral Infections: Some viruses such as the Epstein-Barr, can start Hashimoto's disease. Your immune system will fight these viruses, but it might also attack your thyroid, starting the autoimmune process.

  • Stress: Long-term stress can affect your immune system and make autoimmune conditions worse. While stress itself might not directly cause Hashimoto's, it can make it more likely to happen and get worse.

3. Immune System Dysfunction

Hashimoto's disease happens when the immune system does not work right. Instead of protecting the body, it attacks the thyroid gland by mistake. This mix-up in the immune system can be caused by infections, stress, or hormone changes.

4. Hormone Imbalanced

Hormone changes, especially in women, can cause Hashimoto's disease. Women get it more often than men. Changes during puberty, pregnancy, or menopause can make the immune system react and cause Hashimoto’s disease to start or get worse.

5. Other Autoimmune Conditions

People with autoimmune problems like rheumatoid arthritis or type 1 diabetes might have a higher chance of getting Hashimoto's disease. If someone has more than one autoimmune disorder, it shows there might be a similar problem in how their immune system works.

What are the Symptoms of Hashimoto’s Disease?

Hashimoto's disease messes with the thyroid and causes different symptoms that can really affect how someone feels. It's important to know these symptoms to catch and treat them early.

  • Fatigue: A main sign of Hashimoto's disease is feeling very tired all the time. It's not like normal tiredness that goes away with sleep. People with Hashimoto's feel worn out all the time, making it hard to do even simple tasks.

  • Weight Gain: Another common sign is gaining weight for no clear reason. Even if you eat right and exercise, it's hard to control weight with Hashimoto's. The slow metabolism caused by less thyroid hormone makes you gain weight more likely.

  • Sensitivity to Cold: With Hashimoto's disease, it's hard to control body temperature. You might feel very cold, even in normal or warm places. You may need to wear more clothes to feel comfortable. This happens because the thyroid helps control how fast your body works, which affects how warm you feel.

  • Joint and Muscle Pain: Hashimoto's disease can make joints and muscles hurt because of inflammation. You might feel stiff and uncomfortable, especially in your joints. It can be hard to move around and do things because of this discomfort.

  • Dry Skin and Hair Loss: Skin and hair changes are common in Hashimoto's. Dry skin and hair loss can occur due to the impact of reduced thyroid hormones on the skin's moisture levels and hair follicles. Brittle nails may also accompany these dermatological symptoms.

  • Constipation: In Hashimoto's disease, thyroid problems can make digestion slow, making it harder to poop regularly. Many people with this condition have a hard time having regular bowel movements. They need to be mindful of what they eat and how they live.

  • Cognitive Impairment: Hashimoto's disease can mess with your thinking, making it hard to concentrate, remember things, and think clearly. This can make it tough to work, do daily stuff, and enjoy life.

  • Irregular Menstrual Cycles: For women, thyroid problems can mess up their periods. They might have heavier or irregular periods. Hashimoto's can mess with hormones and affect reproductive health.

  • Depression and Anxiety: Hashimoto's disease doesn't just affect the body, it can mess with mental health too. People might feel depressed or anxious. It's important to take care of both body and mind.

Risk Factors for Developing Hashimoto’s

Several factors heighten the risk of developing Hashimoto's disease:

1. Gender

Women are more likely to get Hashimoto's disease. Although both men and women can have it, women get autoimmune thyroid problems more often. The reasons are not completely clear, but hormones and genes might play a part in why women are more affected.

2. Age

Hashimoto's disease is common in middle-aged people, and the risk goes up as you get older. It can happen at any age, but it's more common between 30 and 50 years old. This shows the need for regular check-ups, especially as you near middle age.

3. Genetic Predisposition

Genetics are important in Hashimoto's disease. If someone in your family has thyroid problems or other immune system issues, you might be more likely to get it too. Certain genes linked to how your immune system works can make you more likely to get Hashimoto's.

4. Hormonal Changes

Changes in your hormone levels can affect your chances of getting Hashimoto's. When your hormones change during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause, it might cause your immune system to attack your thyroid.

5. Presence of Other Autoimmune Issues

If you have other autoimmune issues, you are more likely to get Hashimoto's disease. People with issues such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, or lupus might be more prone to thyroid problems too.

6. Iodine Intake

Iodine helps the thyroid work, but too much can lead to Hashimoto's disease. Too high iodine levels, from food or supplements, might make the immune system attack the thyroid. It's important to have the right amount of iodine for thyroid health.

7. Pregnancy

During pregnancy, your body goes through hormonal changes that can mess with your immune system and thyroid. Some women might get Hashimoto's during or after pregnancy, so it's important to keep an eye on it and see the doctor regularly during this time.

8. Environmental Factors

Being around pollutants and toxins might raise your risk of Hashimoto's disease. They could mix with your genes, making the immune system attack your thyroid more. To lower your risk, try to avoid things that might set it off.

What Does a Hashimoto's Attack Feel Like?

When Hashimoto's acts up, symptoms can get worse and may include:

1. Physical Symptoms during an Attack

Hashimoto's attacks can show up with many physical symptoms, which can really affect your daily life. These might include:

  • Extreme Fatigue: During an attack, people with Hashimoto's often feel extremely tired, more than usual. It's hard for them to do regular things because they're so worn out.

  • Muscle Weakness and Joint Pain: During an attack, people might feel weaker and have more joint pain. It's harder for them to move around or do simple things, making them feel even more uncomfortable.

  • Increased Sensitivity to Cold: During an attack, people might feel really sensitive to cold. Even when it's not very cold outside, they might feel like they are freezing.

  • Digestive Distress: Some people might feel their stomach acting up, like feeling bloated, having trouble going to the bathroom, or feeling uncomfortable in the belly during a Hashimoto's attack.

  • Brain Fog: During an attack, people might have trouble thinking clearly, often called "brain fog." They might find it hard to concentrate, remember things, and feel like their mind is fuzzy.

2. Emotional Toll on Individuals

Beyond the physical realm, Hashimoto's attacks take a toll on emotional well-being. The emotional symptoms during an attack may include:

  • Heightened Anxiety: During a Hashimoto's attack, people might feel more worried and restless, which can make them feel uneasy.

  • Mood Swings: During an attack, people might have mood swings. They might feel grumpy, sad, or frustrated. Dealing with these ups and downs can be hard during these times.

  • Depression: Sometimes, a Hashimoto's attack can make people feel really down. The mix of feeling bad physically and feeling upset emotionally can make things tough mentally.

What to Do if You Are in the Midst of a Hashimoto's Attack?

Having a Hashimoto's attack can be really tough for people with Hashimoto's disease. These attacks come on suddenly and bring intense symptoms. It's important to know what to do to manage them effectively. Here's a guide for dealing with a Hashimoto's attack.

1. Recognize the Symptoms

The first thing to do when dealing with a Hashimoto's attack is to know the symptoms. Being familiar with signs like fatigue, muscle weakness, feeling cold all the time, and having trouble thinking helps you recognize when you're having an attack.

2. Prioritize Rest

Because Hashimoto's attacks can make you very tired, it's crucial to rest. Recognize that you need to take it easy and give yourself time to recover. You might need to take a break from your usual tasks, find a cozy spot, and let your body rest.

3. Stay Warm

Feeling cold is normal during Hashimoto's attacks. Staying warm is important for feeling better. Wear layers, use blankets, and keep your room cozy to ease the cold feeling during the attack.

4. Hydrate and Nourish

Drinking enough water and eating well is important during a Hashimoto's attack. Stay hydrated by drinking water and eating small, healthy meals or snacks. Eating right helps you feel better, even when things are tough.

5. Reach Out for Support

Don't be afraid to ask for help and talk to people you trust about your condition. Your friends, family, or colleagues can be there for you. They can help with things you need, understand what you're going through, and listen when you need to talk.

How is Hashimoto’s Disease Diagnosed?

Doctors need to check you carefully to see if you have Hashimoto's disease. They do exams, tests in a lab, and sometimes, imaging studies. It's really important to find it early and start treatment fast. Let's see how doctors diagnose if you have Hashimoto's disease.

1. Clinical Evaluation

To check if you have Hashimoto's, doctors will talk to you about your health first. They'll ask about your symptoms and if anyone in your family has thyroid problems or autoimmune diseases. Usually, it's a doctor who knows a lot about hormones or your primary care doctor who does this.

2. Physical Examination

Doctors might check your thyroid gland by feeling it with their hands. They want to see if it's normal in size and texture. They'll touch it to see if there are any issues like swelling or tenderness. This helps them understand how your thyroid is doing.

3. Thyroid Function Tests

Doctors use blood tests to check how well your thyroid works. They look at hormones like thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). High levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with low levels of T4 and T3 can mean you have hypothyroidism, which is common in Hashimoto's disease.

4. Thyroid Antibody Tests

To see if Hashimoto's is caused by the immune system, doctors do special tests for antibodies. If they find thyroid antibodies like anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin, it helps confirm the diagnosis. High levels of these antibodies show that the immune system is attacking the thyroid gland.

5. Imaging Studies

Sometimes, doctors might do an ultrasound of your thyroid gland. This helps check its size, structure, and any problems. The ultrasound shows if there's inflammation or damage caused by the immune system.

6. Additional Tests

Sometimes, doctors may want more tests to check other reasons for thyroid problems or to see how healthy you are. They might check things like cholesterol, blood count, and liver function. These tests give a full picture of your health.

7. Consultation with Specialists

If things get complicated or you need more help, doctors might send you to specialists like endocrinologists or immunologists. These experts know a lot and can give detailed advice on how to diagnose and treat the condition.

How is Hashimoto’s Disease Treated?

Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy

The main way to treat Hashimoto's is by taking synthetic thyroid hormones. These hormones help keep the right levels in your body because the autoimmune response damages your thyroid gland. Doctors often prescribe Levothyroxine, which is a synthetic form of T4, to patients.

Individualized Medication Adjustments

Keeping your thyroid hormone levels right is an ongoing thing. Doctors check how your thyroid works with blood tests and adjust your medicine dose as needed to keep hormone levels where they should be. This personalized care helps manage the condition well.

Lifestyle Modifications

Apart from medicine, changing how you live is key to dealing with Hashimoto's. Eat well, exercise often, manage stress, and get enough sleep. Eating a diet that fights inflammation, is full of natural foods, and is low in processed stuff might also ease symptoms.

Stress Reduction Techniques

Stress makes Hashimoto's symptoms worse and can start autoimmune reactions. So, using stress relief methods like meditation, deep breathing, and yoga is key to treatment. These activities help control the immune system and make you feel calmer.

Regular Monitoring and Follow-up

Regularly checking how well your thyroid works is really important when managing Hashimoto's. By seeing your healthcare provider regularly, they can make sure your medicine doses are right and deal with any new symptoms or worries quickly. Keeping an eye on things like this helps you stay stable in the long run.

Addressing Nutritional Deficiencies

Hashimoto's disease can cause low levels of nutrients like vitamin D or B12. Treating these shortages with supplements or diet changes is part of the full treatment. Good nutrient levels help your health and could help your thyroid work better.

Supportive Therapies

You can try other treatments like acupuncture or supplements if you want. They might help some people feel better, but they're not the main treatment. Ask your doctor before you try these kinds of treatments.

Can Hashimoto's Disease Be Cured?

No, Hashimoto's disease is usually seen as a long-term condition that needs to be managed throughout life. While medicine can help control symptoms well, it doesn't cure the main problem. Working closely with doctors is important for ongoing care, making sure the treatment plan works well for you.

Can I Prevent Hashimoto’s Disease?

While there's no sure way to prevent Hashimoto's disease, certain strategies might help lower the risk or delay its start:

1. Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle

Living healthy by exercising often, eating well, and getting enough sleep can boost overall health and might affect how the immune system works.

2. Maintain Optimal Iodine Levels

Keeping your iodine intake balanced is important for your thyroid. Too little or too much iodine can cause thyroid issues. Eat foods rich in iodine like seafood, dairy, and iodized salt. Talk to your doctor to figure out how much iodine you need.

3. Manage Stress

Long-term stress can make autoimmune conditions worse. Try stress-relief methods like mindfulness, meditation, and relaxation exercises. Take care of yourself to lower stress and stay healthy.

4. Avoid Excessive Iodine Intake

While iodine is important for your thyroid to work well, having too much can make Hashimoto's disease worse. Make sure you have the right amount of iodine, and talk to your doctor before taking iodine supplements.

5. Healthy Nutrition

Eat a balanced diet with lots of nutrients. Have fruits, veggies, whole grains, lean meats, and good fats. Get advice from a dietitian for a diet that suits you.

6. Avoid Smoking

Smoking raises the chance of autoimmune thyroid issues like Hashimoto's. If you smoke, get help to quit and stay away from secondhand smoke.

7. Regular Health Check-ups

Regular check-ups help doctors track thyroid health and catch thyroid problems early. If you have risk factors, talk openly with your doctor.

Is There a Special Diet for People with Hashimoto’s Disease?

While there isn't a single solution that works for everyone, having a careful and personalized diet can really help manage Hashimoto's. Let's look into what kind of diet might be helpful for people with Hashimoto's disease.

Anti-Inflammatory Diet

People with Hashimoto's disease are often told to eat foods that fight inflammation. This means eating whole, healthy foods and avoiding processed and inflammatory ones. Here are the main points:

  • Fruits and Vegetables: Fruits and vegetables are packed with antioxidants and fiber, which are good for your health.

  • Healthy Fats: Include foods with omega-3 fatty acids like fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts for healthy fats.

  • Lean Proteins: Opt for lean protein sources like poultry, fish, legumes, and tofu.

Gluten-Free Diet

Some people with Hashimoto's disease feel better when they don't eat gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat and similar grains, and it might make inflammation worse and trigger immune responses in some people. Talk to your doctor before making big changes to your diet.

Low Iodine Diet

If iodine could make Hashimoto's worse, doctors might suggest a diet low in iodine. This means eating less foods with a lot of iodine like seaweed, iodized salt, and some seafood. But it's important to get the right amount of iodine because having too little or too much can affect the thyroid.

Balancing Blood Sugar Levels

People with Hashimoto's need to keep their blood sugar stable. Eat foods with complex carbs, fiber, and protein to prevent sudden highs and lows in blood sugar. This helps keep energy levels steady and supports overall health.

Limiting Processed Foods and Sugar

Avoid processed foods and added sugars as they can cause inflammation and affect your health. Cut down on processed foods, sugary drinks, and too many sweets. Instead, go for whole, natural foods that give your body what it needs.

Individualized Approach

It's important to know that there's no one perfect diet for Hashimoto's disease. Each person may react differently to changes in their diet. It's important to have a personalized approach that takes into account things like food sensitivities, what you like to eat, and your overall health. Talk to healthcare professionals, like dietitians, to make a diet plan that's right for you.

When to See a Doctor

It's important to recognize the signs of Hashimoto's disease and see a doctor early. If you feel very tired, gain weight, feel too cold, or have joint pain, talk to a doctor. If your family has thyroid problems or autoimmune diseases, get regular check-ups and thyroid tests to catch any problems early.

At Center One Medical, we know dealing with Hashimoto's disease can be tough. Our team of healthcare experts is here to help you with your thyroid health journey. We focus on giving you the right diagnosis and personalized treatment plans to keep you well. Contact us and schedule your consultation with Center One Medical today and start living a balanced, healthy life.


In conclusion, Hashimoto's disease is a common and complicated condition that needs careful management. Understanding its causes and symptoms and dealing with its attacks can improve the quality of life. While there's no cure yet, ongoing research and better treatments offer hope for a better life for those with Hashimoto's disease.


1. Can stress trigger a Hashimoto's attack?

  • Yes, stress can trigger Hashimoto's attacks. Managing stress helps control symptoms.

2. Is medication the only treatment for Hashimoto's attacks?

  • The medicine helps, but changing how you live, what you eat, and how you deal with stress is also important for treatment.

3. How long do Hashimoto's attacks typically last?

  • The time they last can be different for each person, ranging from a few days to a few weeks.

4. Can diet really make a difference in managing Hashimoto's attacks?

  • Yes, eating a thyroid-friendly diet can ease symptoms and make attacks less frequent.

5. Is Hashimoto's disease hereditary?

  • Yes, it runs in families due to genetics. Yet, environmental factors also matter. Regular check-ups and talking to a doctor are vital for staying ahead of it.

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